Double Trouble- S. carpocapsae & S. feltiae nematodes together

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How many nematodes
do I need?
For sq. ft.

you need 23, 000 Nematodes

Product Details

Steinernema carpocapsae: Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes generally use "ambush" foraging strategy in which their infective juveniles "sit and wait" for larvae of their insect host to come by and then they attack and infect the larvae that dies within 48 hours. These nematodes are considered as warm adapted and therefore more effective in killing insect pests in the field when temperature is between 20°C and 35°C.

Steinernema feltiae: Steinernema feltiae uses intermediate type of foraging strategy that is between ambush and cruise types to find and kill their insect host.Steinernema feltiae nematodes are considered as cold tolerant because they can infect and kill their insect hosts at less than 15°C.

Facts (show all)

- Effective against the following pests
  • Annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis
  • Banana moth, Opogona sachari
  • Billbug, Sphenophorus spp.
  • Black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus
  • Borers, Synanthedon spp.
  • Citrus root weevil, Pachnaeus spp.
  • Corn rootworm, Diabrotica spp.
  • Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus
  • Fungus gnats, Diptera, Sciaridae
  • Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis
  • Iris borer, Macronoctua onusta
  • Oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis
  • Oriental fruit moth, Graphiolitha molesta
  • Sugar beet weevil, Temnorhinus mendicus
  • Sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius
  • Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera
  • Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis
  • White grub, Popillia japonica
+ Key factors for Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematode effectiveness
  • These nematodes use "cruise foraging" strategy meaning their infective juveniles generally move actively in search of hosts and therefore, they are distributed throughout the soil profile and are more effective against less mobile hosts such as white grubs and black vine weevils.
  • Nematode infective juveniles always carry symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus spp. in their gut. The bacteria and the nematodes form a powerful team to kill insect pests.
  • In the body cavity, infective juveniles release symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus spp. from their gut in insect blood where multiplying nematode-bacterium complex causes septicemia and kill their insect host usually within 24 - 48 hours after infection.
  • In the insect cadaver, nematodes use the multiplying bacteria as food for their development and reproduction.
  • Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes are considered to be warm temperature adapted. They are more effective in killing insect pests in the field when temperature is between 20°C and 29°C.
+ How Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes work in the field
  1. When the infective juveniles of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora are applied to the soil surface in the fields or thatch layer on golf courses, they start searching for their insect hosts.
  2. Once insect larva has been located, the nematode infective juveniles penetrate into the larval body cavity via natural openings (see above).
  3. Once in the body cavity, infective juveniles release symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens in insect blood.
  4. In the blood, multiplying nematode-bacterium complex causes septicemia and kill their insect host usually within 24-48 hours after infection.
  5. Nematodes feed on multiplying bacteria, mature into adults, reproduce and then emerge as infective juveniles from the host cadaver to seek new larvae in the soil and life cycle continues.
See our Nematode Life Cycle Diagram
+ Why you need them
  • they are natural parasites of insect pests so they do not pollute or harm the environment
  • they can kill their hosts rapidly within 24-28 hours after infection
  • they have a broad range of insect hosts
  • able to search for insect hosts actively, infect and kill them
  • nematodes can easily reproduce inside the dead insect body and emerge as infective juvenile that start looking for new hosts to continue the life cycle in the soil after first application
  • they can be easily applied using traditional insecticide spraying equipment
+ Why they are safer than traditional pesticides
  • they do not damage plants
  • can be used and applied around children and pets
  • do not cause any harm to the personnel involved in their production and application
  • food products are safe to handle and eat when they are treated with nematodes
  • they do not harm humans, animals, beneficial insects (ie. honey bees), microbial communities and other beneficial nematodes
+ Research Papers
  1. Bracken, 1990 G.K. Bracken, Susceptibility of first-instar cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.) (Anthomyiidae: Diptera) to strains of the entomogenous nematodes Steinernema feltiae Filipjev, S. bibionis (Bovien), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, and H. heliothidis (Khan, Brooks, and Hirschmann), Can. Entomol. 122 (1990), pp. 633-639.
  2. Ebssa, L., Borgemeister, C., Poehling, H.M., 2004. Effectiveness of different species/strains of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) at various concentrations, host densities and temperatures. Biol. Contrl. 29, 145- 154.
  3. Georgis, R., Koppenhofer, A.M., Lacey, L.A., Belair, G., Duncan, L.W., Grewal, P.S., Samish, M., Tan, L., Torr, P. and van Tol, R.W.H.M. 2006. Successes and failures in the use of parasitic nematodes for pest control. Biological Control. 38: 103-123.
  4. Jagdale, G. B., Casey, M. L., Canas, L. and Grewal, P. S. 2007. Effect of entomopathogenic nematode species, split application and potting medium on the control of the fungus gnat, Bradysia difformis (Diptera : Sciaridae), in the greenhouse at alternating cold and warm temperatures. Biol. Control., 43: 23-30.
  5. Jagdale, G. B., Casey, M. L., Grewal, P. S. and Lindquist, R. K. 2004. Application rate and timing, potting medium and host plant on the efficacy of Steinernema feltiae against the fungus gnat, Bradysia coprophila, in floriculture. Biol. Contrl. 29: 296-305.
  6. Jansson, R.K., Lecrone, S.H. and Gaugler, R. 1991. Comparison of single and multiple releases of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) for control of Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Apionidac), Biol. Control 1 (1991), pp. 320-328.
  7. Koppenhöfer, A.M. and Fuzy, E.M. 2003. Effects of turfgrass endophytes (Clavicipitaceae: Ascomycetes) on white grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) control by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Environ. Entomol. 32 (2003), pp. 392-396.
  8. Koppenhofer A.M. and Fuzy, E.M. 2008. Effect of the anthranilic diamide insecticide, chlorantraniliprole, on Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida : Heterorhabditidae) efficacy against white grubs (Coleoptera : Scarabaeldae). Biological Control. 45: 93-102.
  9. Koppenhöfer, A. M., Fuzy, E.M., Crocker, R., Gelernter, W. and Polavarapu, S. 2004. Pathogenicity of Steinernema scarabaei, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and S. glaseri to twelve white grub species, Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 14 (2004), pp. 87-92.
  10. McGraw, B.A., Vittum, P.J., Cowles, R.S. and Koppenhofer A.M. 2010. Field evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in golf course turfgrass. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 149-163
  11. Pena, J.E., Schroeder, W.J. and Osborne, L.S. 1990. Use of entomogenous nematodes of the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae to control banana moth (Opogona-sachari). Nematropica. 20: 51-55.
  12. Pilz, C., Keller, S., Kuhlmann, U. and Toepfer, S. 2009. Comparative efficacy assessment of fungi, nematodes and insecticides to control western corn rootworm larvae in maize. Biocontrol. 54: 671-684.
  13. Shields, E.J., Testa, A., Miller, J.M. and Flanders, K.L. 1999. Field efficacy and persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora "Oswego" and H. bacteriophora "NC" on alfalfa snout beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Environ. Entomol. 28 (1999), pp. 128-136.
  14. Stefan, T., Ibolya, H.Z., Ehlers, R.U., Peters, A. and Kuhlmann, U. 2010. The effect of application techniques on field-scale efficacy: can the use of entomopathogenic nematodes reduce damage by western corn rootworm larvae? Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 12: 389-402.

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Double Trouble- S. carpocapsae & S. feltiae nematodes together

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